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Uwe Meixner

Universal

From Handbook of Mereology

ISBN: 978-3-88405-686-8

Preis: €9.80 (inkl. 19 % MwSt.)


Universals belong to those entities that have neither spatial nor temporal parts, and that therefore have neither a (literally) spatial nor a (literally) temporal localisation. Universals are either non-predicative or predicative. The non-predicative universals are also called types or type-objects (for example, the letter A). The predicative universals, in turn, are divided into the properties and the relations. Types are closely related to properties: there is a property p(T) corresponding one-to-one to each type T, such that x exemplifies/instantiates T if, and only if, x exemplifies/instantiates p(T). Predicative universals should be distinguished from concepts, just as states of affairs should be distinguished from propositions. But just as there is a certain analogy between states of affairs and propositions, so there is a certain analogy between predicative universals and concepts; in particular, there is an analogy between properties and monadic concepts, and an analogy between relations and polyadic concepts. The analogy is of such a kind that names for properties can also be used as names for monadic concepts, and names for relations also as names for polyadic concepts. Thus, ‘love’ can both function as a name for a certain dyadic relation, and as a name for a certain dyadic concept. If the context does not already make it clear what is being referred to, then the name can easily be disambiguated: ‘the relation of love’, ‘the concept of love’. The situation is entirely the same in the case of states of affairs and propositions: ‘that the moon revolves around the earth’ can function both as a name for a state of affairs, and as a name for a proposition; putting ‘the state of affairs’ or ‘the proposition’ to the left of the ‘that’-phrase will make it clear, if need be, what is being referred to….




 


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